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Water Structure and Science

'wisdom delights in water'

Confucius (Analects VI.21)   




Iguazu Falls, Brazil


Iguaco Falls, Brazil, by MFC



Victoria Falls, from Zambia


Victoria Falls, from Zambia, by MFC



Ice cliff, Svalbard


Ice cliff, Svalbard, by MFC



Durdle Door, England


Durdle Door, Dorset, UK, by MFC



Annapurna, Nepal


Annapurna, Nepal, by MFC



Angel Falls, Venezuela


Angel Falls, Venezuela, by MFC



Ramsey Island, Wales


Ramsey island, Wales, by MFC



British Antarctica





Tallow Bay, Australia


Tallow Bay, Australia, by MFC



Yellowstone fumarole, USA


Yellowstone fumarole, by MFC



South Island, New Zealand


South Island, New Zealand, by MFC





South Island, New Zealand, by MFC


 The water molecule

 Water: a brief early History of its Science

 Liquid water

 Water structure

 Easier introduction to the water molecule

 Pure water and solubility

 ortho-water and para-water

 The molecular orbitals of water, H2O

 Hydrogen bonding

 Hydrogen bonds

 Hydrogen bonding in water

 hydrogen-bonding and information transfer
 Water dimer and small clusters

 The molecular orbitals of a water dimer, (H2O)2

 The molecular orbitals of a cyclic water pentamer, (H2O)5

 The Phase Diagram of water

 Density change

 Steam, gaseous water, and airborne water

 Supercritical water

 Supercooled water
 Ice phases
 Ice crystal data

 Hexagonal ice

 Cubic ice (Ic/XIc)

 Stacking disordered ice; Ice Isd















 Ice-sixteen and other low-density ices


 Ice-eighteen and very high-pressure ices


 Amorphous ice and glassy water

 Clathrate ices I, II and H

 Molecular vibration and absorption of water

 Water dissociation, 2H2O = H3O+ + OH
 Hydrogen ions
 Hydroxide ions
 Grotthuss mechanism

 The molecular orbitals of the H3O+ and OH ions

 The molecular orbitals of the hydrated hydroxide ion, H3O2

 The molecular orbitals of the dihydronium ions, H5O2+

 Water at interfaces and nanobubbles

 Confined water


 Interfacial water and water-gas interfaces

 Nanobubbles (ultrafine bubbles)

 Seventy-five anomalous properties of water

 Phase anomalies P1-P14

 Density anomalies D1-D22

 Material anomalies M1-M18

 Thermodynamic anomalies T1-T11

 Physical anomalies F1-F10

 Properties of water and its isotopologues

 Unexpected properties of water

 Short properties list for liquid H2O

 Changes in some properties with temperature (-30 °C - 100 °C)

 Changes in some further properties with temperature (0 - 373 °C)

 Water-related molecules; comparative data

 Thermodynamics, introduction

 Important constants and conversion factors

 Greek letters and symbols

 Periodic Table

 Water molecular models

 Water clustering in liquid water

 Overview of the structuring in liquid water

 Introduction to water clustering

 Water's two-state cluster history

 Outline of methods for investigating water structure

 The icosahedral (H2O)280 water clusters

 Water cluster equilibria, puckering and temperature effects

 Water icosahedral cluster architecture

 Spherical coordinates of the icosahedral water clusters

 Shell radii and occupancy of the icosahedral water clusters

 Super-clusters of water molecules

 Alternative icosahedral clustering of water

 Alternative tetrahedral clustering of water

 Water cluster architecture, based on gas clathrates

 Paper model of an icosahedral water structure

 Paper model of a truncated icosahedral water structure

 Plain paper model of a truncated icosahedral water structure

 Evidence for icosahedral water clusters

 Water cluster conclusions


 Protein hydration

 Protein folding and denaturation

 Nucleic acid hydration

 Biomembrane hydration

 Sugar hydration

 Aqueous properties of the cyclodextrins

 Polysaccharide hydration

 Introduction to polysaccharides

 The furan pseudo-rotational angles of ribose and deoxyribose

 Hydrocolloids and gums










 Gum arabic

 Guar gum

 Locust bean gum



 Xanthan gum

 Rheology of hydrocolloids

 Hydrocolloids and health (Dietary fiber)

 Ion hydration and aqueous solutions of salts

 The H3O+ magic number cluster ions

 Water clustering around the SO42− cluster

 Water clustering around the CO2 cluster

 Aqueous ammonia

 Aqueous H2S

 Aqueous hydrogen halides

 Aqueous phosphate

 Aqueous silicates

 Aqueous borates

 The Hofmeister series

 Kosmotropes and chaotropes 

 Hydrophobic hydration
 Alcoholic solutions

 Intracellular water

 Water and astrobiology

 Water on Earth


 Hard water, descaling, and desalination


 Water and life

 Water and health

 Water redox processes


 Water powered cars

 Magnetic and electric effects on water

 Water and microwaves

 Dielectric constant and polarization

 The complex dielectric permittivity behavior of water

 Oxygen and water

 Water activity

 Moles, molarity, and molality

 Colligative properties of water
 Osmotic pressure


 Brownian motion

 Self-generation of osmotic pressure at interfaces

 Aqueous biphasic systems

 Polyoxomolybdate systems

 {Mo132} nanocapsule and aqueous nanodrop

 Molybdenum blue {Mo154} nanowheel

 Aqueous solutions of the fuillerenes C60 and C70

 Frequently asked questions concerning liquid water

 Water-related material


 Memory of water

 Polywater and EZ-water

 Strange waters


 C18 and other carbons

 Platonic solids, water, and the golden ratio

 Contributed papers

 J. G. Watterson, Enzyme function: random events or coherent action?

 Book reviews

 Aqueous systems at elevated temperatures and pressures

 Handbook of refractive index and dispersion of water for scientists
                  and engineers

 References (currently 5270+ including multiple references in entries;

                           + ≈ 400 external website references)

 Visitor's Book, recent postings

 Visitor's Book archive, 2000-2003

 Visitor's Book archive, 2004-2006

 Add to Visitor's Book

  Links with animation

  Earlier publications




 Water-related links

 Martin Chaplin CV


 Site news

 Minor edits

 Site Table of Contents



 Enzyme Technology eBook


go to the Water Science Site Map


This page was last updated by Martin Chaplin on 4 January, 2022

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