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(H2O)8 Equilibria
Two water tetramers forming an octamer


Small clusters of four water molecules may come together to form water bicyclo-octamers.


The molecular arrangement (A) is high-density, low volume, and has higher entropy whereas molecular arrangement (B) with additional hydrogen bonds (shown green), with 60° relative twist, is low-density, high volume, and has lower entropy.



Animated gif showing two water tetramers forming an octamer


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This page was established in 2002 and last updated by Martin Chaplin on 1 November, 2021

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